African Scientist Vol. 25, No. 1, March 2024

Effect of Xylopia aethiopica Fruit Extract on Liver Functions in Pregnant Female Wistar Rats

This study investigated the influence of aqueous fruit extract of Xylopia aethiopica on the liver function in apparently healthy pregnant Wistar rats. Twenty Wistar rats weighing 140-210 g were divided into four groups (n = 5). Group 1 was the control group and received only distilled water orally, while groups 2, 3 and 4 served as the test groups and each received orally 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg of the aqueous extract, respectively for 7 days from Day 7 of pregnancy to Day 14.

Proximate Composition and Mineral Contents of the Flesh and Shell of Tympanotonus Fuscatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda: Potamididae) of the Cross River, Nigeria

Tympanotonus fuscatus var .radula (L) is a species of periwinkle living in the black mud of the mangrove swamp forest along the brackish water mangrove swamp forest area of the West Africa rivers and in the Cross river in Nigeria. The proximate and mineral contents of it flesh and shell were investigated using techniques recommended by AOAC. The moisture, crude protein, ash, fat contents of the flesh were 50.00 mg/100gm, 22.32mg/100gm, 1.22 mg/100gm, and 10.02 mg/100gm respectively.

Haematological and Histopathological Effects of Justicia carnea (Jehovah's Witness Plant)

Justicia carnea is a medicinal plant used widely in Nigeria as a blood-booster. The toxicity of the extracts of J. carnea was carried out to evaluate its haematological and histopathological effects on Wistar albino rats. The aqueous and ethanol extracts used for this study were obtained using the Soxhlet extraction method. A total of fifteen (15) rats in five treatment groups were used for this study. Different concentrations of the leaf extracts were administered to the animals for fourteen (14) days, after which they were observed for mortality and toxicity.

Microbiological Analysis of Surfaces of Hospital Kitchen Equipment in Benin City, Nigeria

Hospital kitchen equipment are the materials used in the kitchen in carrying out food preparation effectively in hospitals. This study aimed to analyse the surfaces of some hospital kitchen equipment for microbial quality. Samples were collected before and after food preparation from surfaces of tables, sinks, gas cookers and freezer handle of three major hospital kitchens in Benin City, Nigeria. The samples were transported to the laboratory and subjected to standard microbiological analysis.

Handgrip Strength as a Screening Tool for Diabetes in Resource-Constrained Settings: A Potential Solution to Overcome Barriers to Diagnosis

Diabetes mellitus is an escalating global health concern, especially in low and middle-income countries. Handgrip strength (HGS), a measure of muscle strength, emerges as a potential non-invasive and affordable screening tool for diabetes, particularly in areas with limited healthcare access. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between HGS and blood glucose regulation in non-diabetic young adults and to provide valuable insights into the potential of HGS as a preventive and affordable approach to managing diabetes.

Parasitic Infection of Amphibians from an Open Dumpsite and Otofure, the Host Community in Ovia North East LGA, Edo State, Nigeria

Open dumpsites provide ample and stable food sources for most animals, but they also make them more susceptible to illnesses and pollutants. Amphibians are typically drawn to these areas because of the abundance of prey and relative moisture. However, the ongoing burning at the dumpsite may jeopardize any creature that lives in this ecosystem. The purpose of this study was to assess amphibian diversity and parasite infections at an open dumpsite and its host town, Otofure, in Ovia North-East Local Government Area, Edo State, Nigeria.

Atrazine-Induced Impairment of Fecundity and Fertilization in Exposed Adult Clarias gariepinus: Consequences for Hatchability and Larval Survival

This research investigates the impact of atrazine, a widely used herbicide, on the reproductive capabilities of adult Clarias gariepinus, a freshwater catfish of ecological and economic significance. Twelve months old specimens of C. gariepinus comprising of twenty (20) males and twenty (20) females with mean average weight of 1024 ± 88.4g and 1100 ± 97.4g respectively and mean total length of 52.8 ± 2.3cm and 52.7 ± 1.1cm respectively, were exposed to exposed to four different sub-lethal concentrations of atrazine (40µg/L, 60µg/L, 80µg/L, and 100µg/L) in a semi-static renewal assay.

Bioactive Components, Nutritional Properties, and Antimicrobial Activities of Non-Fermented and Fermented Seeds of Vitis vinifera

The fermented and non-fermented seed powder of Vitis vinifera, a herbaceous plant with numerous biological activities was investigated in this study. The pH, in vitro antimicrobial assay against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans, phytochemical, proximate compositions were screened, while the active compounds of the fermented sample were further evaluated by High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A decline in pH from 6.2 to 3.6 was recorded during fermentation for 14 days.

Human health risk of cadmium, selenium, and tin concentrations in canned fish from selected markets in Edo State, Nigeria

The surge in human exposure to heavy metals, driven by their widespread industrial use, demands a thorough examination of their toxicity. This study focuses on heavy metal contamination in canned fish sold in Benin City, with an emphasis on Atlantic bluefin tuna, Atlantic mackerel, and European pilchard. Six brands of canned fish were purchased from selected markets in Benin City, Nigeria, and the heavy metal levels were assessed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) instrumentation.

Impact of Urban Runoff on the Benthic and Pelagic Fish Fauna in Ikpoba River: Heavy Metal Levels and Gill Pathology

This study presents an assessment of the influence of urban runoff on fish fauna in the Ikpoba River, Nigeria, focusing on heavy metal contamination and gill pathology in benthic (Clarias gariepinus) and pelagic (Oreochromis niloticus) fish species. Samples of water, sediment, and fish gills were collected from June to August 2023. Heavy metals (Ni, Co, Cr, Pb, and Cd) were analyzed via Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS), and gill pathology was evaluated through histopathological examination.