Heavy Metal Content and Health Risk Assessment of Jams Consumed in Nigeria

The content and risk of nine heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu, Co, Mn, Zn and Fe) were quantified and assessed in jams consumed in Nigeria. The heavy metal contents were quantified using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after digesting jam samples with mixture of acids. The quantified content (mg/kg) of the heavy metals in the jams ranged from <0.03 for Cd, < 0.25 for Pb, 0.05-1.55 for Ni, < 0.25-0.50 for Cr, 0.75-7.75 for Cu, <0.25-0.50 for Co, <0.25- 13.3 for Mn, <2.00-14.0 for Zn and 13.1-30.8 for Fe. The estimated daily intake (EDI) values of Ni, Co and Mn in 50%, 83% and 67% of jams for children exposure exceeded their tolerable daily intakes (TDI) but the EDI of Cr, Cu, Zn and Fe were below their respectively TDI. The target hazard quotient (THQ) of the respective heavy metals and the total target hazard quotients (∑THQ) were > 1 suggesting health concern for individuals consuming these jams regularly. 

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