Vol 7, No 4 2006: African Scientist

Common indications for upper gastro-intestinal tract endoscopy in ECWA Hospital, Egbe, Nigeria: A preliminary report

Upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy is a visual examination of the upper intestinal tract using a lighted, flexible fibreoptic or videoscope. Common reasons for upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy include ulcers (benign and malignant), intestinal bleeding, oesophagitis and heartburn, gastritis etc. This study is therefore to examine the common indications for upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy at ECWA hospital, Egbe. Kogi state.

The relationship between gallstone disease and gallbladder wall thickness

The presence of Gallstones in the gallbladder is known to cause irritation of the gallbladder wall thereby resulting in the thickening of the gallbladder wall. On the other hand, an inflamed gallbladder, with its thickened wall, has been postulated to encourage super-saturation of gallbladder bile and subsequent gallstone formation. This study was therefore designed to determine the relationship between the presence of Gallstones and Gallbladder wall thickness.

Microbiological quality and safety of smoked fish from Kainji Lake area

Microbiological qualities of 32 samples of smoked fish belonging to 4 species of fish namely: Clarias gariepinus, Oreochromis niloticus, Citharinus citharus and Synodontis membranaceous; from four (4) local markets (Monday Market, Sabo Market, Malale Market, Awuru Market) were studied. In most samples, moisture contents were high, 53.12% of the fish samples have moisture content above 30% level. The smoked samples were dominated by gram-positive bacteria however, potential pathogens, coagulase positive staphylococci, and Escherichia coli were isolated from some of the samples.

A comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and faecal egg examination for the diagnosis of bovine fascioliasis

Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for the diagnosis of fascioliasis due to F. gigantica was found to be more sensitive for the diagnosis of fascioliasis when compared with Faecal Egg Examination (FEE). An average monthly prevalence of 79.3% was observed for ELISA while FEE gave a prevalence of 28%. This indicates that parasitological methods of diagnosis underestimates parasite prevalence. There is therefore need to use conventional method of diagnosis in association with serological diagnosis.


Geohelminth eggs in market soils in Benin-City, Nigeria

A survey of soil transmitted helminthes (STH) in different markets of Benin City was carried out using the test-tube floatation method. A total of three hundred (300) samples from different sections of the markets were examined and 82 (27.33%) samples had various geohelminth eggs. The parasite prevalence rates were Ascaris lumbricoides (30.99%), Necator americanus (20.25%), Trichuris trichuria (16.12%), Strongyloides stercoralis (10.33%). The prevalence of these helminth eggs is attributed to indiscriminate disposal of faeces and refuse in and around the markets.


Evaluation of rice breeding lines for combined effect of African rice gall midge and iron toxicity in Nigeria

Thirteen fixed lines from the cross of FARO 12 and 44 were evaluated at Edozhigi and Gara villages, located in central Nigeria. The trial was conducted to select promising lines to be used for African rice gall midge (AfRGM) and iron toxicity endemic areas. The experiment was randomized complete block design replicated three times. The result showed significant differences in grain yield at Gara but not at Edozhigi. Percentage tiller damage for AfRGM was high in both locations. Iron toxicity score was also moderate for the two locations, however higher scores were obtained at Edozhigi.


Combined mode toxicity of different crude extracts of plants to mango mealybug Rastrococcus invadens Williams

Six acetone extracts of Annona senegalensis root-bark; Tephrosia vogelii root-bark; stem-bark, leaf and seed; Tephrosia candida seed; and two aqueous residue extracts of neem seed kernel and Annona muricata seed kernel were tested for bioactivity against Rasdtrococcus invadens Williams at different concentrations with three replications. The six acetone extracts were highly toxic to adult female R. invadens in the combined mode experiment. T. vogelii stem-bark, followed by its seed; A. senegalensis root-bark and T. candida seeds extracts, was most insecticidal to the mealybug.


Strategies for the control of pests and diseases for sustainable cocoa production in Nigeria

Pests and diseases have largely contributed to the declining productivity of cocoa in Nigeria. About 25 – 30% loss in yield of cocoa has been attribute to the cocoa mired, Sahlbergella singularis. 17% is lost through the feeding of the cocoa pod borer Characoma strictigrapta while losses attributable to the major disease of cocoa (the black pod disease caused by Phytophtora megakarya) range from 30 – 90% in Nigeria. The estimated farm holdings of peasant farmers account for 90% of the 700,000 hectares of land under cocoa cultivation.

Kola production and utilization for economic development

Kola is an important cash crop to a significant proportion of Nigerian population who are involved in kola farming, trading and industrial utilization. Research on the improvement of kola productivity and utilization is one of the major mandates of the Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria (CRIN), where remarkable achievements have been made on kola. CRIN has developed improved Cola nitida hybrids with short maturation period of 5 years and an annual average yield of about 2000 nuts/tree/year.