Chronic toxicity study on neem, (Azadirachta indica) leaf aqueous extract in chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus)

This study on chronic toxicity of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf aqueous extract in chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) involved daily intraperitoneal administration of graded doses: 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg of the extract for a period of 18 days. Clinical symptoms of ruffled feathers, weakness, anorexia, depression, and dyspnoea were observed at 20 minutes post exposure extract-dose dependent, and death intervened on day 6 post exposure. At post mortem gross lesions were pulmonary oedema and congestion, distended gall bladder with enlarged and congested liver which had pale foci on its surface. Microscopic lesions were also extract-dose dependent and included pulmonary congestion and oedema with interstitial mono nuclear cell infiltration, hepatic vacuolar degeneration with kupffer cell proliferation, sinusoidal congestion, haemorrhage and necrosis with foci of bacterial colonies, nephritis, congestion of vasa vasori, spongiosis, matted and stunted intestinal villi with goblet cell hyperplasia.

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